درآمدی انتقادی بر نظریه‌های «آشوب و پیچیدگی»

نوع مقاله: علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دبیر گروه علوم تربیتی شورای بررسی متون

چکیده

هدف از نگارش این مقاله توصیف و نقد نظریه‌های آشوب و پیچیدگی است. بنابراین، از روش پژوهش «کاوش‌گری فلسفی انتقادی» استفاده شد. جامعة آماری دربرگیرندة همة کتاب‌ها، مقالات، مطالعات، و پژوهش‌های مرتبط با موضوع بود که حداکثر ممکن منابع به‌روش نمونه‌گیری هدف‌مند، به‌منزلة نمونه، انتخاب شدند. داده‌های موردنیاز ازطریق سیاهة یادداشت‌برداری گردآوری و اطلاعات به‌روش کلامی و استنتاج منطقی تحلیل شدند. براساس یافته‌های پژوهش، نظریة آشوب علم مطالعة سیستم‌های پیچیده، پویا، غیرخطی، دور از تعادل، و نظریة پیچیدگی علم مطالعه، توصیف، و تبیین رفتار سیستم‌های انطباقی پیچیده است که با ویژگی‌های اثر پروانه‌ای، مجذوب‌کننده‌های ناشناس، خودشباهتی، ظهوریابندگی، حلقه‌های بازخور، بی‌‌تعادلی، خودسازمان‌دهی، آشیانه‌ای‌بودن، شبکه‌‌ای‌‌بودن، کل‌نگری، غیرخطی، و ‌پیش‌بینی‌ناپذیر‌بودن شناخته می‌شوند. این نظریه‌ها با برداشت کوهنی، یک نظریة علمی و با مفهوم علوم نرم، یک علم و به‌دلیل زیرسؤال‌بردن پارادایم مدرنیسم و ارائة مفروضات جای‌گزین، پارادایم محسوب می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

PhD in Curriculum, Planning and Member of Research Institute of Education

نویسنده [English]

  • Sayed Mohammad Hossein Hosseini
Secretary of the Educational Sciences Group of The Iranian Council for Reviewing Books and Text
چکیده [English]

The present article aims at describing and criticizing the theories of chaos and complexity. Therefore, the "Critical Philosophical Exploration" method was used. The statistical population comprised all books, articles, studies, and research pertaining to the subject that was selected with purposive sampling and the maximum probable sources. The data required were collected through notetaking and analyzed by verbal and logical inference. According to the research findings, chaos theory is the science of studying complex, dynamic, nonlinear, non-equilibrium systems, and complexity theory is the science of study, description, and explanation of the behavior of complex adaptive systems characterized by butterfly effect, unknown attractors, self-similarity, emergence, feedback loops, inequality, self-organization, nesting, networking, holism, nonlinearity, and unpredictability. These theories are considered a scientific theory by Kuhn's conception, a science by the concept of soft sciences, and a paradigm because of questioning the paradigm of modernism and presenting alternative assumptions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chaos Theory
  • Complexity Theory
  • criticism
  • science
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