عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
John Rawls with the publication of "A Theory of Justice" is well known as one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century. In A Theory of Justice, Rawls argues for two basic principles of justice as are applicable for all human societies considering their moral diversity. Rawls's theory of justice that is embodied in these principles, in fact, defines justice in relation to the liberty and preserves justice on the basis of the value of liberty. He adopted a liberal approach to justice. This theory has been criticized by both liberals and anti-liberals. Robert Nozick is one of the foremost critics of the liberal approach. He believes that Rawl's theory of justice entails the continual intervention in the affairs relating to individuals and constant violations of individual freedoms. Anti-liberal communitarians were the most important critics of the theory of justice those who believe that this theory does not provide a proper understanding of society and individual. Rawls liberalism considers society as a common threat to attain individual interests and individual, in his view, is abstracted from the social relations, while this is the ends, purposes and the participations of individuals in various societies that determine their identity and position and give particular moral features to individuals' life. Communitarians believe Rawls's theory of justice requires an exact conception of the individual and his fundamental features. This makes one of the most central Rawl's claims, i.e., the fairness of his justice principles indefensible.