نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

نظارت آموزشی مفهوم گسترده‌ای است که فعالیت‌های یادگیری ضمن خدمت را در بر می‌گیرد. این مقاله به توصیف کلی اثر و مبانی فکری نظریة نظارت آموزشی و نقد و ارزیابی آن پرداخته است. در تحلیل این نظریه، بهشکاف بیننظریه و دنیای واقعی مدرسه اشاره شده است. کاربرد نظریه به این معنی نیست که باید چیزی فراتر از تجارب روزانة مدیران انجام شود؛ بلکه باید در خدمت فرایند تصمیم‌گیری باشد. نظریه موجب می‌شود که فعالیت‌های مدیریتی در چهارچوب‌های نظری تأیید شدة عمل در موقعیت‌های آموزشی با آگاهی کامل‌تر و مؤثرتر انجام شوند. پس نظریه فقط تا زمانی که با عمل آموزشی مرتبط باشد مؤثر و مفید خواهد بود. افزون بر این، گروه‌های رشد حرفه‌ای مشارکت‌محور، گرچه پارادایم جدیدی‌اند، اما باعث رشد حرفه‌ای معلمان در موقعیت‌های مختلف، و از نظر ابعاد متنوع می‌شوند. مدل رشد حرفه‌ای بهتر از سایر مدل‌ها وجود ندارد که بتواند در همة موقعیت‌ها به کار رود. باید به نیازهای مدارس و معلمان و باورهای فرهنگی توجه شود. در آخر به نتیجه‌گیری پرداخته و پیش‌نهادهایی ارائه شده است.
  

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Critical and Review of Supervision Theory as Teacher’s professional development

نویسنده [English]

  • Bijan Abdollahi

چکیده [English]

 
For the quality improvement of schools, we should focus on professional development of teachers. Professional development included all the opportunities and experiences that are systematically planned for teachers’ professional development. This is exactly the supervision which have been addressed in supervision theory of Nolan and Hoover. This theory is a new approach to teaching and provides opportunities for teachers to enable them to grow beyond their current level of performance. supervision is a broad concept that includes learning experiences during  in – the job- training and on- the job- training activities. This kind of new conceptualization includes supervision options such as peer counseling, self-directed learning and action research, Collegial Development Groups, professional learning communities, school-based learning is also included.
This paper first describes the overall effect and intellectual and philosophical foundations of supervision theory, then it reviews and evaluates them. In theory analysis, the gap between supervision theory and the real world of school and classroom have been mentioned in the sense that this theory is not spread in practice and the real world. Application of the theory does not mean that something beyond the daily experiences of the principals must be done. But theory must serve the decision-making process and logic. Theory makes management activities done more effectively with full knowledge of the approved theoretical frameworks of action in educational situations. So, a theory would be useful only when it is related to instructional practice. In addition, Collegial Development Groups, as a new paradigm, the professional development is different in various situations, and even in a different position and can vary in dimensions. There is no better model of professional development than the other models that can be used in all schools. The needs of schools and teachers should be evaluated, and cultural beliefs and practices should be considered for decision-making. These subjects make the usability of the theory in trouble. Finally, conclusions and suggestions are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Critical
  • Supervision Theory
  • professional development
  • Teachers
  • James Nolan and Linda A. Hoover
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