نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکدة زبان‌ها و ادبیات خارجی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

چکیده
به نظر برخی از محققان و نقادان شبه قاره،‌‌ در میان انواع ادبی منظوم اردو، «مرثیه» یک نوع ادبی به‌شمار می‌‌رود که از مرثیة عربی و حتی فارسی مستقل است. درحقیقت، نوحه‌خواندن در سوگواری کسی که از دنیا رفته، در بین تمام ملت‌‌ها، وجود داشته و دارد؛ و البته بر اساس تفاوت‌‌های فرهنگی ملت‌‌ها ابراز این تأثرات نیز متفاوت است. در ادبیات فارسی و اردو، مرثیة شهدای کربلا به‌دلیل تقدس دینی شکل خاصی به ‌خود گرفته است. مرثیه‌سرایان اردوزبان، به‌‌ویژه شاعران پرآوازه‌‌ای چون میرانیس و میرزا دبیر، در پیشرفت آن تلاش زیادی کردند؛ به‌طوری‌ که بیش‌تر‌‌ محققان و منتقدان اردوزبان به اهمیت ادبی مرثیه‌‌های آن‌ها معترف‌اند. اجزائی که آنان به مرثیه افزودند، علاوه‌بر القای غم و رنج، به‌دلیل داشتن حالت‌‌های دیالوگی و نمایش‌نامه‌‌ای، خواننده و شنونده را به خود جلب می‌‌نماید. افزودن بخش‌‌های جدید و اجزای متنوع، چون «بَین»، «شهادت»، «رزم» و غیره در قالب ترکیب‌‌بند مسدّس، گونه‌‌ای ادبی را پدید آورد که فقط شاعران ‌‌بلندمرتبه توانستند در این‌ حوزه آثاری باارزش پدید آورند. بررسی ابتکارات و اقدامات شاعرانی از این دست، چگونگی و اهمیت مرثیه در زبان اردو را مشخص می‌‌سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Study and Analysis of Urdu Elegiac Poets Innovations

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Bayat

چکیده [English]

Study and Analysis of Urdu Elegiac Poets Innovations
Ali Bayat*
According to some researchers and critics of the indian subcontinent, among poetic literary genre of Urdu literature, “elegy” is a genre quite independent from the Arabic and even the Persian one. A research study can verify this fact. It is clear that since past times mourning and lamenting for the dead has been present in the cultures of all nations throughout the world, and will be so in future as well. The only difference among them relates to the genres of means, and intensity or weakness of expressing sadness. Elegy for the martyrs of Karbala in Persian and Urdu has got a special form because of its religious aspects. Elegy writers of Urdu, specifically, famous poets like Mir Anis and Mirza Dabir have developed elegy so much that most of the researchers and critics of the Indian subcontinent, apart from their religious inclinations, have confessed about its literary significance. They added some parts to elegy, which more than being sad, its dialogic and characteristics attract the readers and listeners. Creating new terms like "Bain" (Lamentation), “Shahadat” (Martyrdom), “Razm” (war) and etc. in the form of Tarkib-band-e Mosadas, they have developed a new literary genre. Therefore, only prominent poets could enter in this new arena, and during the shining period of Urdu elegy in Lakhnaw, low-educated poets automatically were put aside, and prominent poets elevated importance of Urdu elegy very much.



Study and Analysis of Urdu Elegiac Poets Innovations
According to some researchers and critics of the indian subcontinent, among poetic literary genre of Urdu literature, “elegy” is a genre quite independent from the Arabic and even the Persian one. A research study can verify this fact. It is clear that since past times mourning and lamenting for the dead has been present in the cultures of all nations throughout the world, and will be so in future as well. The only difference among them relates to the genres of means, and intensity or weakness of expressing sadness. Elegy for the martyrs of Karbala in Persian and Urdu has got a special form because of its religious aspects. Elegy writers of Urdu, specifically, famous poets like Mir Anis and Mirza Dabir have developed elegy so much that most of the researchers and critics of the Indian subcontinent, apart from their religious inclinations, have confessed about its literary significance. They added some parts to elegy, which more than being sad, its dialogic and characteristics attract the readers and listeners. Creating new terms like "Bain" (Lamentation), “Shahadat” (Martyrdom), “Razm” (war) and etc. in the form of Tarkib-band-e Mosadas, they have developed a new literary genre. Therefore, only prominent poets could enter in this new arena, and during the shining period of Urdu elegy in Lakhnaw, low-educated poets automatically were put aside, and prominent poets elevated importance of Urdu elegy very much.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: elegy
  • elegiac poem
  • Mir Anis
  • Mirza Dabir
  • razm (war)
  • martyrdom